Law Firm Billing: A Complete Guide for Lawyers

Understanding the complexities of law firm billing can often feel like trying to solve a puzzle with pieces that don't quite fit. Yet, understanding the ins and outs of billing is crucial for any legal practice aiming to thrive. It's not just about getting paid; it's about establishing a system that's fair, transparent, and efficient for both lawyers and their clients. This guide aims to unpack everything you need to know about law firm billing, turning what can often be a headache into a streamlined process that supports the success of your firm.

From the initial client meeting to closing a case, every step in the legal process has implications for billing. Whether you're billing hourly, on a contingency basis, or with flat fees, each method has its nuances and best practices. And with the growing emphasis on ethical standards and client satisfaction, getting your billing right is more important than ever.

By the end of this guide, you'll have a comprehensive understanding of law firm billing, equipped with the knowledge to implement practices that will benefit your firm and your clients alike. Let's demystify law firm billing together, creating a foundation for financial success and client trust.

Understanding the Law Firm Billing Process

At its core, what is legal billing? It’s a question that might seem straightforward at first glance, but the answer is the bedrock upon which law firms build their financial health. Legal billing isn’t just about sending out invoices and getting paid. It encompasses the entire process of recording, tracking, and managing the financial transactions related to the legal services provided. Understanding this process is crucial, not just for maintaining the firm’s cash flow but also for creating trust and transparency with clients.

law firm Billing Process

In a nutshell, legal billing involves everything from the initial client agreement on fees to the final payment collection. It’s the mechanism that ensures lawyers are compensated for their expertise and clients are billed fairly and accurately for the services they receive. For law firms, getting a grip on effective legal billing practices means the difference between thriving and just surviving. This is why diving deep into the nuances of legal billing is not only beneficial but essential for every legal professional.

Step 1: Time Tracking

The first and perhaps most crucial step in the billing process is time tracking. Think of it as the heartbeat of billing; without it, everything else stands still. Every minute spent on cases and tasks needs to be accounted for meticulously. This isn’t just about diligence; it’s about ensuring the lifeblood of your practice—billable hours—are accurately captured.

Accurate time tracking isn’t just a best practice; it aligns with legal billing guidelines that emphasize fairness and transparency in billing practices. Whether it’s drafting documents, conducting research, or courtroom time, each task has its value and must be recorded. This precision not only guarantees that the firm is properly compensated for its work but also builds trust with clients who can see exactly what they are being billed for.

The takeaway here is clear - meticulous time tracking is non-negotiable. It sets the foundation for fair and transparent billing, ensuring every billable moment is captured and rightfully accounted for.

Step 2: Applying Billing Rates and Fees

Once time is tracked, the next step is applying billing rates and fees, a process central to what is legal billing. Determining these rates often depends on several factors, including the complexity of the case, the lawyer's experience, and the client's specific needs. Law firms typically use different billing models, such as hourly rates for tasks that vary in time and effort and flat fees for services with a predictable scope.

Transparency and consistency in setting and applying these rates are key. Clients should fully understand how fees are calculated from the get-go, eliminating any surprises when the invoice arrives. Whether it’s an hourly rate or a flat fee, the rationale behind the figure should be clear and justified.

law firm billing rates

This step ensures that the firm's billing practices are fair, understandable, and aligned with the expectations set during the initial client agreement. Maintaining this level of transparency not only builds trust with clients but also reinforces the firm's reputation for integrity and fairness in billing.

Step 3: Generating Draft Invoices

After meticulously tracking time and applying the appropriate billing rates, the next step is generating draft invoices. This is where all the detailed work gets translated into a formal request for payment. Draft invoices pull together the recorded time and applied rates, creating an itemized list of services rendered to the client.

The drafting stage is crucial for ensuring accuracy and adherence to legal billing guidelines. It’s a chance to review every entry for correctness, making sure each charge aligns with the agreed-upon rates and services. This step isn't just about catching typos; it's about verifying that the invoice reflects a true and fair representation of the work done.

Reviewing draft invoices for accuracy and compliance is non-negotiable. It protects the firm by ensuring all billing is defensible and above board, and it respects the client's right to transparent, understandable billing. This meticulous review process upholds the firm’s commitment to fairness and integrity in every bill sent out.

Step 4: Review and Approval

The fourth step in the billing cycle, review and approval, acts as a quality check to ensure every invoice accurately reflects the work done and sticks to the legal billing guidelines and ethical standards set by the profession. This internal review process is crucial, acting as a final safeguard against errors and ensuring that all billing practices are consistent and fair.

Typically, this review involves senior attorneys or members of the billing department who have a comprehensive understanding of both the legal work involved and the ethical standards governing billing practices. They meticulously go over each invoice, comparing it against case records, time tracking data, and the agreed-upon billing arrangements with the client.

This step isn't just about dotting i's and crossing t's - it's a crucial practice that ensures the firm’s billing is transparent, accurate, and justifiable. By rigorously adhering to this process, the firm not only upholds its commitment to ethical billing but also reinforces trust and reliability in its client relationships.

Step 5: Issuing Invoices and Managing Payments

The final leap in the legal billing process is issuing invoices and managing the payments that follow. Once an invoice has received the green light, it’s sent out to the client, marking a clear expectation for payment within a set period. This step is pivotal, as it directly impacts the firm's cash flow and financial health.

billing systems for law firms

Timeliness in sending invoices cannot be overstressed. It keeps the billing cycle short and sweet, reminding clients of the value they receive from your services while it’s still fresh in their minds. But what is legal billing without a solid follow-up plan? Ensuring payments come in on time involves monitoring outstanding invoices and gently nudging clients who might need a reminder or two.

Effective management of this step means employing systems that track payment statuses and sending timely reminders for overdue invoices. It’s about maintaining a balance between being firm on payment expectations and flexible enough to accommodate clients who may need a bit more time. Keeping this final step smooth ensures a healthy financial standing for the firm and sustains positive client relations.

These legal billing guidelines aren't just rules; they're the foundation of trust, transparency, and integrity in the lawyer-client relationship. Furthermore, the role of technology in this process cannot be overstated. From the initial time tracking to the final invoice issue, technology streamlines each phase, ensuring accuracy, efficiency, and compliance with best practices. It’s clear that when guidelines and technology go hand in hand, law firms not only optimize their billing processes but also reinforce their commitment to ethical standards and client satisfaction.

The Importance of Efficient Billing

Efficient billing isn't just about getting invoices out the door; it's a critical component of the operational success of any law firm. Law firm billing is more than just numbers on a page; it shows the value of the work done and affects the firm's financial health. When done right, it ensures that cash flow remains steady, that clients feel fairly treated, and that the firm's reputation for professionalism and reliability is upheld.

law firm billing systems

At its heart, efficient billing is about accuracy, timeliness, and clarity. It means tracking billable hours with precision, applying rates correctly, and communicating charges to clients in a way that's straightforward and understandable. This process not only safeguards the firm's revenue stream but also builds trust with clients, laying the foundation for long-term relationships. In a profession where trust is everything, efficient billing is not just a financial necessity; it's a cornerstone of client service.

Cash Flow

Cash flow is essentially the lifeline of your law firm. Without a steady inflow of funds, even the most prestigious firm can find itself struggling to cover basic operational expenses. This is where efficient billing practices, aligned with strict billing standards, come into play. By ensuring that invoicing and payment collection happens in a timely manner, a firm can maintain a healthy cash flow, which is crucial for its survival and growth.

When billing is handled efficiently, it means that funds are regularly coming in, allowing the firm to pay salaries, rent, and other necessary expenses without hiccups. It also means there's room for investment in growth opportunities, whether that's hiring more staff, expanding office space, or investing in new technology.

On the flip side, delayed billing can choke this vital lifeline. When invoices are sent out late, or payments are not diligently followed up on cash flow bottlenecks can occur. Suddenly, the firm might find itself in the precarious position of not having enough funds on hand to meet its obligations. This not only puts the firm's operations at risk but can also harm its reputation among clients and employees. Adhering to billing standards ensures that billing practices support rather than hinder your firm’s cash flow.

Client Satisfaction

Clear, timely, and accurate law billing practices play a pivotal role in enhancing client satisfaction. When clients receive invoices that are straightforward and reflect the agreed-upon fees and services, it builds a strong foundation of trust and transparency. Efficient billing, marked by its clarity and punctuality, ensures that clients understand exactly what they are being charged for, which significantly reduces the potential for disputes and misunderstandings.

The role of efficient billing in fostering a positive relationship cannot be overstated. It's about more than just numbers on a page; it's about demonstrating respect for the client's right to fair and transparent billing. This level of openness encourages clients to feel more secure in their dealings with a firm, knowing there won't be any unpleasant surprises when it comes time to pay.

Adhering to billing standards is crucial in this process. Standards ensure that invoices not only meet legal and ethical requirements but are also crafted in a way that's easy for clients to understand. By following these standards, law firms show a commitment to fairness and integrity in their billing practices, further enhancing client trust and satisfaction.

Firm Reputation

Your firm’s reputation isn’t just built on the cases you win but also on how you handle law firm billing. Efficient, fair, and transparent billing practices are like a mirror reflecting your firm's values to the legal community and potential clients. When your billing is straightforward and fair, it sends a powerful message that your firm prioritizes integrity and transparency. This not only strengthens your standing in the legal community but also attracts more clients through positive word-of-mouth.

legal billing

Moreover, transparent billing practices play a significant role in retaining clients. People want to work with a firm that treats them fairly and makes billing understandable. This level of trust encourages clients to return and often leads to more referrals, further enhancing your firm’s reputation and growth potential.

Conversely, negative billing practices can tarnish your firm’s image. Inaccuracies, lack of clarity, or perceived unfairness in billing can lead to disputes and dissatisfaction, eroding trust. This not only risks losing existing clients but can also deter potential ones. In some cases, it might even result in legal challenges. In essence, how you manage law firm billing can significantly impact your firm’s reputation, for better or worse.

Leveraging Technology for Billing Efficiency

Leveraging technology for billing efficiency isn't just an option; it's a necessity. Advanced tools and software have transformed billing standards, making processes smoother, more accurate, and transparent. These technologies range from time-tracking software that ensures every billable minute is accounted for to invoicing platforms that automate the creation and dispatch of invoices, cutting down on manual errors and saving precious time.

Integrating technology into your billing processes can significantly boost your firm’s efficiency. For instance, automated systems can flag discrepancies or unusual entries, ensuring compliance with billing standards and reducing the likelihood of disputes with clients over billing inaccuracies. Furthermore, online payment options can expedite the payment process, enhancing client satisfaction by offering them convenience and flexibility.

The benefits of embracing these technological solutions are clear: not only do they streamline billing practices, but they also contribute to a better overall client experience. By ensuring accuracy, reducing errors, and adhering to billing standards, technology plays a pivotal role in strengthening the trust clients place in your firm. In the end, integrating technology into your billing processes is a strategic move toward achieving greater efficiency, accuracy, and client satisfaction.

Common Challenges in Law Firm Billing

Every law firm, no matter how streamlined or organized, encounters its share of common challenges in law firm billing. These hurdles can range from tracking billable hours to navigating client disputes over invoices. It’s a universal aspect of legal practice management that can test the patience and skills of even the most seasoned professionals. However, confronting these challenges head-on isn't just about avoiding financial discrepancies or misunderstandings; it's a pathway to refining billing processes and, more importantly, strengthening client relationships. Dealing with problems in law firm billing quickly and well can turn possible annoyances into chances to show how your firm values being fair and clear.

Inaccurate Time Tracking

One of the most common challenges in law firm billing stems from inaccurately tracking the time spent on client work. Whether it’s forgetting to log an hour of research or incorrectly rounding up time, these inaccuracies can lead to underbilling, which eats into your firm's revenue, or overbilling, which risks client trust and satisfaction. Both scenarios undermine the firm's financial stability and its reputation.

The impact of inaccurate time tracking extends beyond just the numbers. It can strain the client-lawyer relationship, as clients expect to be billed fairly and transparently for the actual work done. Discovering discrepancies in billing can lead them to question the integrity of the firm, potentially damaging trust that might take years to rebuild.

law firm billing

Improving time tracking accuracy is, therefore, crucial. Implementing dedicated software that allows for real-time tracking and easier logging of billable hours can make a significant difference. Making sure that employees are consistently taught about the significance of keeping track of time correctly shows how important it is not only for law firm billing but also as a way for the firm to show its dedication to doing things ethically. By addressing this challenge, law firms can safeguard their cash flow and fortify client trust.

Miscommunication and Misunderstanding Fees

Miscommunications about fee structures and billing policies are common billing challenges that can quickly lead to client dissatisfaction. When clients are surprised by their bills because they don't understand the fee agreement or billing practices, trust erodes, and the relationship suffers. It's crucial, then, to establish clear communication from the very start of the client relationship.

Laying out fee structures and billing policies in simple, understandable terms can prevent many of these issues. Implementing upfront billing agreements, where all costs and billing practices are transparently discussed and agreed upon before any work starts, ensures both parties are on the same page. Furthermore, conducting regular billing reviews with clients can help catch and address any concerns early on before they grow into disputes.

By prioritizing clear communication and setting expectations early, law firms can significantly reduce the risk of billing misunderstandings, maintaining a positive and trusting relationship with their clients.

Handling Billing Disputes

Handling billing disputes effectively is crucial for maintaining a healthy client-lawyer relationship. Adopting a proactive and client-focused approach not only helps in resolving disputes swiftly but also reinforces trust. The key to efficient resolution lies in clear documentation and open communication. Having detailed records of time spent and expenses incurred can clarify any misunderstandings and provide tangible evidence during discussions.

law billing

Implementing policies for regular reviews of billing with clients can prevent disputes from arising in the first place. These reviews offer a platform to address any concerns early on and adjust billing practices as needed. When disputes do occur, it’s important to listen to the client’s concerns with empathy, explain the billing process clearly, and be willing to make adjustments if errors are found.

By fostering an environment where billing concerns are addressed promptly and transparently, law firms can navigate handling billing disputes more smoothly, ensuring client satisfaction and loyalty.

Navigating Complex Billing Requirements

One of the common challenges in law firm billing involves navigating the maze of complex billing requirements set by clients or mandated by legal authorities. These can range from detailed formatting to specific itemization, making compliance a meticulous task. To tackle this challenge head-on, many firms are turning to technology and specialized billing software. These tools are designed to adapt to a variety of billing guidelines, ensuring accuracy and compliance without the painstaking manual effort. By automating the compliance process, law firms can more easily adhere to these detailed requirements, reducing the risk of errors and saving valuable time that can be better spent serving clients.

Billing Models in Law Firms

Billing models are essentially the frameworks that law firms use to calculate charges for their services. These types of law firm billing methods play a crucial role in setting clear expectations between law firms and their clients. By choosing a particular billing model, a firm decides how it will measure and charge for its work, whether that's by the hour, a flat rate, or contingent upon the outcome of a case. This decision not only impacts how a firm earns its revenue but also affects client satisfaction and trust. A transparent and well-understood billing model ensures that clients know what to expect when it comes to legal fees, fostering a relationship built on clarity and trust right from the start.

Hourly Rates

Hourly billing stands as the foundation among the types of billing methods for lawyers, embodying the traditional approach to calculating legal fees. This method charges clients based on the actual time attorneys spend working on their case, measured in hourly increments. Its transparency in accounting for each hour worked makes it a straightforward and widely accepted practice.

billing hours law firm

However, while hourly rates offer clear metrics for billing, they also come with their own set of challenges. On the plus side, clients can appreciate paying for tangible work done. Yet, this model sometimes raises concerns regarding efficiency and cost predictability. Since the final bill is directly tied to the hours logged, clients may worry about the potential for unforeseen legal expenses, especially in complex cases that require significant time investment. This uncertainty can lead to client anxiety over escalating costs, highlighting the importance of regular communication and updates about the progress and billing of their case. In essence, while hourly billing offers clarity in billing for lawyers, it also necessitates careful management to align client expectations with billing realities.

Flat Fees

Flat fees are a simpler way for law firms to bill clients, making it easier and more predictable for clients to understand their legal costs. This model sets a single, fixed fee for a specific service or case, regardless of the time spent on it. It’s particularly advantageous for cases with well-defined scopes or routine legal tasks where the required work can be accurately anticipated.

The beauty of flat fees lies in their straightforwardness; clients appreciate knowing exactly what they will be charged upfront, eliminating the uncertainty that hourly billing can sometimes bring. This predictability helps clients budget for legal expenses more effectively and fosters a sense of financial transparency.

However, the key to successfully implementing flat fees is in the clear definition of the scope of work. It's essential to communicate openly with clients about what the flat fee covers and, just as importantly, what it doesn't. This clarity prevents misunderstandings and ensures a smooth attorney-client relationship. Adopting flat fees, when appropriate, can streamline billing processes and enhance client satisfaction by making legal fees easy to understand and anticipate.

Contingency Fees

The contingency fee model is a distinctive approach in billing for lawyers, where the attorney's fees depend entirely on the outcome of the case. If the lawyer wins the case or achieves a favorable settlement, they receive a predetermined percentage of the award or settlement; if not, the client pays nothing in attorney's fees. This model aligns the interests of the lawyer and client, creating a powerful partnership dynamic. Both parties are invested in the success of the case, fostering a shared commitment to achieving the best possible outcome.

billing for lawyers

Contingency fees are most commonly used in personal injury, workers' compensation, and other cases where the client seeks compensation for damages or injury. This method is particularly beneficial for clients who may not have the financial resources to pay legal fees upfront, offering them access to legal representation that might otherwise be out of reach. By tying payment to success, contingency fees ensure that lawyers are motivated by the same goal as their clients: winning the case.

Choosing the Right Model

Choosing the right law firm billing methods is key to a successful legal case.  The choice should be guided by the nature of the case, the client's preferences, and how the law firm operates. It's essential to have a candid discussion with clients about the billing options available, weighing the pros and cons of each method together. This consultation ensures that the chosen billing model aligns with the client's expectations and the firm's practices, laying the groundwork for a transparent and mutually beneficial relationship. By thoughtfully choosing the most appropriate billing method, law firms can foster trust and satisfaction from the outset, ensuring a smoother process for both parties involved.

Best Practices for Invoicing Clients

Crafting clear, detailed invoices is not just about compliance with billing standards; it's an essential practice for maintaining transparency and trust with your clients. Here, we delve into the best practices for invoicing clients, ensuring that every bill you send out reinforces your firm's commitment to professionalism and fairness.

Clear Itemization and Description

One of the foundational best practices for invoicing clients is to provide a clear itemization of services rendered. Each entry should include sample attorney billing descriptions that explain the work done in a way that's easily understandable to someone outside the legal profession. Avoid legal jargon and instead, use plain language to describe tasks. For example, instead of "legal research," specify "researched case law related to personal injury claims." This not only makes your invoices more transparent but also helps clients appreciate the value of the work performed.

Transparent Billing Practices 

Transparency in your billing practices involves more than just clear descriptions. It means being upfront about your billing model, any additional costs, and how expenses are calculated. Ensure that your invoices reflect the billing agreement established at the start of your engagement, including hourly rates, flat fees, or contingency arrangements. Consistency between your initial agreement and your invoices prevents misunderstandings and builds trust.

law firm billing practices

Prompt and Regular Invoicing 

Timing is everything when it comes to invoicing. Best practices suggest invoicing promptly and regularly to keep clients informed and to avoid billing surprises at the end of a case. Monthly invoices, for instance, can help clients budget for legal expenses and ensure they're never caught off guard. Prompt law firm billing helps your firm get paid faster, improving cash flow and reducing the time between providing services and receiving payment.

Including Detailed Expense Reports 

For matters where clients are billed for expenses in addition to legal fees, including a detailed expense report with your invoice is crucial. This report should itemize out-of-pocket expenses such as filing fees, postage, and travel expenses, supported by receipts or documentation when possible. Transparency about expenses prevents disputes and demonstrates your firm’s integrity.

Following these best practices for invoicing clients not only meets law firm billing standards but also strengthens the relationship between law firms and their clients. By creating clear, detailed, and understandable invoices, you ensure that clients feel respected and valued, laying the groundwork for ongoing trust and collaboration.

Ensuring Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ensuring compliance with ethical standards in billing is not just a regulatory requirement—it's a cornerstone of the profession's integrity and public trust. Adhering to attorney billing guidelines promotes transparency and fairness, fundamental principles that should guide every action within a law firm, especially when it comes to financial interactions with clients.


Transparency in billing goes beyond merely itemizing services; it encompasses a comprehensive approach that ensures clients understand how, why, and for what they're being billed. It means clear communication from the outset about the billing model, hourly rates, flat fees, or contingency arrangements, and any other potential costs. This level of openness helps clients feel more secure and less likely to dispute charges because they know exactly what to expect.


Fairness in billing is about more than just setting reasonable rates; it's about ensuring compliance with ethical standards that govern the legal profession. This includes accurately recording time, avoiding "double-dipping" by billing multiple clients for the same hours, and ensuring that expenses are billed at cost without markup. Fair billing practices reinforce the trust clients place in their legal advisors and uphold the firm's reputation.

law firm billing

Ethical Billing Practices

Adhering to attorney billing guidelines necessitates ethical billing practices that include regular audits of billing processes to ensure accuracy and compliance. Firms should implement internal controls that prevent overbilling or billing for unnecessary tasks. Training for all attorneys and staff on ethical billing is also crucial, as it helps maintain a culture of integrity within the firm.

Handling Mistakes

Even with the best intentions, mistakes can happen. Ethically handling billing errors is crucial; this means acknowledging them promptly and correcting them immediately. Whether it involves issuing a credit or refund, the response should be swift and in the client's favor. This approach not only adheres to ethical standards but also reinforces the client's trust in the firm's commitment to fairness.

Making sure law firm billing follows ethical standards is crucial for keeping clients' trust and confidence. It requires a commitment to transparency, fairness, and a proactive approach to prevent and address billing errors. By adhering to attorney billing guidelines, law firms demonstrate their dedication to ethical practices, enhancing their reputation and strengthening their client relationships.

Handling Billing Disputes

When it comes to lawyer billing, disputes can occasionally arise, but they don't have to sour client relationships if handled correctly. The key to resolving billing disputes lies in effective communication and meticulous documentation. It’s like having a playbook titled Legal Billing for Dummies: always be clear, always be prepared.

lawyer billing

First and foremost, approach every dispute with a willingness to listen and understand the client's concerns. Open communication channels immediately and keep them open, ensuring the client feels heard and valued. Often, disputes arise from misunderstandings that can be quickly resolved through clarification and discussion.

Next, lean on your documentation. Detailed records of time spent on tasks, expenses, and communications about billing can provide clarity and support your position. This documentation serves as the backbone of your billing process, offering concrete evidence that can help de-escalate potential conflicts.

Finally, be flexible in your lawyer billing where you can. If an error on your part is discovered, correct it promptly and openly. Even when the dispute might not be due to an error, offering a compromise can be a good strategy to preserve the relationship.

Leveraging Technology for Billing Automation

Leveraging technology for law firm billing automation has transformed the way law firms manage their finances. From the moment a case is opened until the final invoice is sent, technology can significantly streamline the entire billing process. This includes everything from tracking billable hours with precision to generating detailed legal invoices without manual input.

law firm billing

The beauty of billing automation lies in its ability to reduce human error and save time. Sophisticated software can track time spent on various tasks automatically, ensuring that every billable minute is accounted for. When it comes to invoice generation, this technology can pull together all billable activities into comprehensive, easy-to-understand legal invoices that clients can trust.

Plus, technology enhances transparency and accuracy in billing, key factors in maintaining client trust and satisfaction. Automated reminders for unpaid invoices also help improve cash flow, making sure that payments are received promptly.

Tips to Improve Billing Productivity

Boosting law firm billing productivity is key to a law firm's success, ensuring that valuable time is spent on client work rather than administrative tasks. Here are some actionable tips to improve billing productivity in your law office billing:

  • Establish Regular Billing Cycles: Implementing consistent billing cycles, such as weekly or monthly invoicing, can streamline the billing process and ensure timely payments. Regular cycles keep clients informed and help manage cash flow effectively.
  • Use Time Management Tools: Leveraging time tracking tools can significantly reduce the time spent on logging billable hours. These tools offer accurate tracking of time spent on each task, ensuring every billable minute is captured.
  • Automate Where Possible: Automating repetitive billing tasks, from generating invoices based on tracked time to sending out payment reminders, can save hours of manual work. Look for billing software tailored to legal practices to maximize efficiency.

Improving Your Law Firm Billing

Mastering law firm billing practices is essential for the smooth operation and financial health of any law firm. From understanding various billing models to implementing best practices for invoicing clients, it's clear that accuracy, transparency, and efficiency are non-negotiable elements. We've looked into how solving typical billing problems and using technology to automate law firm billing can improve these efforts, helping law offices not only meet but surpass billing standards. Remember, effective law firm billing practices backed by modern technology not only streamline operations but also strengthen client trust and firm reputation.

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